Comfort Ye, Comfort Ye – A Sermon for Shabbat Nachamu

Unusually posting this now, not sure how it will work out previewing my sermon but since it’s written…!

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Nachamu, Nachamu: Comfort ye, comfort ye my people says the Eternal One.[i]

There is no comfort. How can there be comfort. The world is cleaved apart by rockets and missiles and our hearts are torn asunder by the devastation and death. Forget proportionality – this is all about humanity.

It is not the flowers[ii] of the field or grass springing up in the morning,[iii] they have long since faded.[iv] Now it is the bloods of thy brother which cry out to you from the ground O humankind, cry out against You, O God.[v] What fades is goodness, what fades is the presence of the Almighty. The Shechina, forever to go whither the Jewish people go into exile has finally succumbed, closed her eyes and ascended to the highest firmament, to weep.[vi] Alas how she sits alone.[vii] Alas how we sit alone.

We, the great and mighty humankind, the rulers and judges,[viii] generals, rabbis, imams and priests, the politicians, the citizens, from our young to our old, our water drawers and hewers of wood,[ix] we have ground down the truth which might otherwise sprout up.[x] As if to affirm everything that the angels argued over – in their divisions– at the time when God came to create humankind, we have proven once and for all that power, strife, deception and hatred are irrepressible urges. We no longer hammer swords into ploughshares,[xi] we hammer, hammer, hammer away at our divisions until there is no longer a sense of us and them, we only sense us, me, we, my band of brothers and sisters, my triumphant, powerful division. And you, yes you on the ‘other’ side. Before you think you’re better than me. You are guilty too – some of you more than me. Yes you too. I cannot measure our respective guilt but you must carry the sin that is too heavy to bear just like me.[xii] It is too heavy for us all to bear. Everyone who thinks they bear no responsibility for death and suffering, I say as my teachers before me, ‘Few are guilty, all are responsible’.[xiii]

Comfort ye, comfort ye my people.

There is no comfort. How can there be comfort when the deep seated, evil of antisemitism lurks so close to the surface of modern Western societies. When the outspoken intention of the ruling power in the neighbour of the State of Israel is to wipe her off the map and with the State, the Jews too. And we are accused of genocide. And we readily believe the wheels of propaganda that churn out statistics, solutions, graphic images – uncritically, seeking confirmation for our biases. There can be no comfort. There is no comfort.

There is no comfort when our hearts are perverted and down trodden. When we wake up from our progressive idealism to realise that there really are people who are homicidal and suicidal in their intents to bring the disease of hatred and violence into civilisation. There is no comfort when we feel the belief in human progress and betterment slipping away from our grasp in the darkness of more and more and more conflict: Israel, Gaza, Ukraine, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Nigeria, Cameroon, and on and on. We cry out, we proclaim. There is nothing but tears.

“For these things I weep; mine eye, mine eye runneth down with water; because the comforter is far from me, even he that should refresh my soul; my children are desolate, because the enemy hath prevailed” (Lamentations 1:16)

The enemy hath prevailed – the enemy is despondency and death of hope for love and human progress.

Comfort ye, comfort ye

What is comfort anyway? How indeed shall we be comforted? Is it comfort as the prophet Isaiah suggests that comes from the knowledge of the endurance of God and the covenant? I don’t think so, there is no comfort in that – it is too much of the long game to find comfort. Right now I have little hope in that adolescent platitude in which we seek world peace in our lifetime. And it’s rapidly looking like my children will grow up in a world filled with as much conflict as there was in the last century.

In 100 years we’ve advanced a long way – our machines of war are better, more efficient, more accurate, more cunning and we can even take to the web to give personal expression to our interpretation of the facts and figures. We’re all war correspondents now. 100 years – but as a blink of the eye in human progress.

The Jew, the only people in the world who for two thousand years has not really had anything even approaching a sovereign state, always vassal or minority, created a little less than a citizen[xiv] is now feeling vilified in the world for a desire for enduring self-determination in a land to which they’ve been connected for millennia – we have no comfort. How shall we sing the song of the Eternal One in a strange land[xv] – how strange is our land, this land here, that land there in the East. Humankind is estranged.

If the celebrity pundits and commentators are to be believed, Israel can exist but must be emasculated. The deepest desire is for dependency; the Jew, that is, dependent on the civilised West. See how the West came to our rescue when last our bodies were turned to ashes on the soil of the civilised West. You see now why the psyche leaves no room for dependency or consideration. You, they cry, didn’t care when we only lived amongst you. Now we’re supposed to believe you care and that we can depend on you? She can exist but now everything that her government touches is to be proscribed. You Jews can have your culture but don’t taint it with your violent, nationalist, racist, apartheid state. Come now, be good Jews, civilised like us, enjoy your culture – you know klezmer music, plays about the shtetl, what’s that film again ‘Fiddler on the Roof’. But wasn’t that guy Israeli too – you know Topol? Come now, let’s ban the shtetl too.

Comfort ye

I’m comfortable. When I check the news sometimes obsessively and become ever sucked into the cogs of the media I know for sure that it’s unhealthy. But then my house needs no bomb shelter. I am comfortable. I have not cowered over my children in the vain hope that should anything happen my body will shield their lives and they will live. Live for what? I do not live in fear of rocket or air strikes and that the only place of refuge be it school, hospital or refugee camp may also become a target. I am not an innocent stuck at the mercy of leaders who seem not to care about me and conflict that measures me by what is acceptable cost.

We turn to Job’s story, the universal narrative of human suffering. I have not witnessed the savagery of death of my whole family, loss of livelihood, of health. The children, God, the children. “And the Eternal One changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friends; and the Eternal gave Job twice as much as he had before.” (Job 42:10) For the seven sons and three daughters who perished, he has seven sons and three daughters. A perfect restoration – surely not. There is no ‘replacement’.

I’m comfortable, but not comforted. I am devastated that we can see no way through to an end to our over powering influence on the fate of the Palestinian people. The occupation and control must end to play its part in our salvation, our redemption. It is immoral and disastrous. And I’m devastated that Gaza is also dominated by people intoxicated by religious zealotry, political power and evil hatred of the ‘other’ – including Jews. And as the poison of hate spreads, Israelis are not immune – there are plenty who spout bile and make me ashamed. We are comfortable here in St Johns Wood, but can we be comforted. Can the earth be comforted. Can God be comforted.

Comfort

God saw at the time of the creation of human kind that the righteous and the wicked would arise from him. God said to himself, ‘If I create him, the wicked will arise from him but if I do not create him how will the righteous arise from him?’ What did God do – he pushed away the wicked way from before himself and joined the attribute of compassion to Himself and created him.[xvi]

The astonishing thing is that the composer of this midrash knows the problem. There are those whose intent is wicked, who are wicked. That truly they could be the overwhelming force in the world. They will dominate and triumph in their wickedness no matter what. But for the sake of goodness, for the sake of righteousness we step out into the world. We must be the righteous – the risk was taken for us. But more than that meagre comfort we are reminded that evil, hatred and strife are permanent conditions of human kind, but in their inevitability is also the inevitability of righteousness. Even in the face of overwhelmingly negativity we must go to the lengths of self-deception. Hiding the inevitable and allying ourselves to compassion, to love, for the sake of our future – in imitation of God who held fast to the attribute of compassion.

Yet, in spite of this, a mere 10 generations later God is discomforted, “And the Eternal One saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And God was discomforted, regretful (vayinachem) that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart.” (Genesis 6:5-6)

This Shabbat begins the seven weeks of comfort (sheva denechemta), leading all the way to Rosh Hashanah, the days of repentance. In the Me’or Einayim, Rabbi Menachem Nachum of Chernobyl writes:

“Comfort ye, comfort ye – repeated twice. The word ‘comfort’ is from the language of ‘God regretted [vayinachem] that He had made man’. It is the language of a different way of thinking – the language of repentance. And the doubling concerns the two ways of repentance. First from fear and after that from love.”

At a time when repentance is felicitous we can take heart, repent and pay off our guilt.[xvii] And that repentance of which we are speaking may begin with fear but must follow with love. There is no comfort except in love. When the time is right, and I pray it is soon, let it be now, here, today. But if not now then soon. Let us ascend up the stairs of repentance: in trepidation first but then in love. So that everyone will come to realise the heart of the matter is to love your neighbour and the stranger as yourself.[xviii] To love yourself, to love the Eternal One your God[xix] – Ve’ahavta. You shall love.

Rabbi David Rosen quotes Rav Kook as the ‘antithesis of religious nationalist chauvinism’ (in Judaism and Universal Morality – Reflections on Jewish Texts):

“Only within the soul that is replete with love of all beings and (above all) love of humanity, is the love of (one’s own) nation able to reach its full nobility and spiritual and practical greatness…One must strive greatly to love other beings so that (such love) will fill every chamber of the soul, so that one’s love of humanity will extend to every other human person.”

In this may we find comfort. Comfort ye, comfort ye My people says God. Let us be comforted – soon in our days and let this be God’s will.

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[i] Isaiah 40:1
[ii] Isaiah 40:6 but also in mind Yehuda Amicha, ‘From the place that we are right’
[iii] Psalm 90:5-6
[iv] Isaiah 40:7
[v] Genesis 4:10 (and associated midrashim)
[vi] Eicha Rabbah Petichta 24
[vii] Lamentations 1:1
[viii] Isaiah 40:23
[ix] Deuteronomy 29:10
[x] Bereishit Rabbah 8
[xi] Isaiah 2:4 – כתתו playing on כיתים of Bereshit Rabbah 8.
[xii] Genesis 4:13
[xiii] Heschel, ‘The Prophets’
[xiv] Psalm 8:6
[xv] Psalm 137
[xvi] Bereshit Rabbah 8
[xvii] Isaiah 40:2
[xviii] Leviticus 19:18, 34
[xix] Deuteronomy 6:5

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UK Liberal and Reform Rabbis on recent weeks in Israel and Gaza

Below is a selection of items from various Liberal and Reform Rabbis who have written about Israel in recent days, listed in chronological order (if something is not listed please let me know). This seemed particularly appropriate to think about in the lead up to today’s commemoration of the World War One and Tisha B’Av:

UPDATED – 15 August 2014

‘One Death Can Change History’, Rabbi Lea Muehlstein (Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue) – Parashat Chukkat (28 June 2014)

‘Thought of the Week’, Rabbi Alexandra Wright (The LJS) – Parashat Pinchas (4 July 2014)

‘Changing Borders’, Rabbi Dr Andrew Goldstein (Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue) – Parashat Balak (4 July 2014)

‘Blessings and Curses’, Rabbinic Student, Hannah Kingston (Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue) – Parashat Balak (5 July 2014)

Statement, Rabbi Laura Janner Klausner (Movement for Reform Judaism) – (9 July 2014)

Sermon, Rabbi Miriam Berger (Finchley Reform Synagogue) – Parashat Pinchas (12 July 2014)

‘As Jews, we can’t be neutral in this conflict’, Rabbi Neil Janes (The LJS) – Article in Haaretz (15 July 2014)

‘Why I fasted for peace in the Middle East’, Rabbi Dr Margaret Jacobi (Birmingham Progressive Synagogue) – Article in Comment is Free, Guardian (16 July 2014)

‘Thought of the Week’, Rabbi Alexandra Wright (The LJS) – Parashat Mattot (17 July 2014)

‘Religion and War’, Rabbi Lea Muehlstein (Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue) – Parashat Mattot (18 July 2014)

‘The Elephant’, Rabbi Monique Mayer (Bristol and West Progressive Synagogue – (19 July 2014)

‘Holding onto Humanity’, Rabbi Esther Hugenholtz (Sinai Synagogue) – Parashat Mattot (21 July 2014)

‘Shall your brethren go to war and you sit here? reflections on parashat mattot at my farewell service’, Rabbi Sylvia Rothschild (Wimbledon Reform Synagogue) – Parashat Mattot (22 July 2014)

‘Jasmine, Israel and Gaza’, Rabbi Mark Goldsmith (North Western Reform Synagogue) – Parashat Mattot

Prayer for Peace Between Israelis and Palestinians, Revised July 2014 – Rabbi Elli Sarah (Brighton and Hove Progressive Synagogue) – 22 July 2014

Joint Statement from Movement for Reform Judaism, Liberal Judaism, Masorti Judaism and Spanish and Portuguese Jews

‘Thought of the Week’, Rabbi Alexandra Wright (The LJS) – Parashat Massei (25 July 2014)

Sermon, Rabbi Dr Michael Hilton (Kol Chai Reform Synagogue) – Parashat Masey (26 July 2014)

‘Order out of Chaos’, Rabbi Aaron Goldstein (Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue) – Parashat Massei (26 July 2014)

‘Personal Leadership in Relation to Israel and Gaza’, Rabbi Judith Levitt (Shaarei Tsedek) – Parashat Massei (26 July 2014)

‘Thought of the Week’, Rabbi Alexandra Wright (The LJS) – Shabbat Chazon (1 August 2014)

Sermon, Rabbi Helen Freeman (West London Synagogue) – Shabbat Chazon (2 August 2014)

‘Planning Beyond Catastrophe’, Rabbi Dr Michael Hilton (Kol Chai Reform Synagogue) – Parashat Devarim (2 August 2014)

‘Just Another Black Shabbat’, Rabbi Lea Muehlstein (Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue) – Shabbat Chazon (2 August 2014)

‘From Rebuke to Reconciliation’, Rabbi Esther Hugenholtz (Sinai Synagogue) – Parashat Devarim (2 August 2014)

‘An Open Letter to Lutfur Rahman’, Rabbi Pete Tobias (The Liberal Synagogue Elstree) – (August 2014)

‘Pastoral Letter’, Rabbi Danny Rich (Liberal Judaism ) – (7 August 2014)

Letter to the Times, inc. Rabbis Charley Baginsky, Laura Janner Klausner, Sybil Sheridan, Deborah Kahn Harris, Jonathan Wittenberg – (9 August 2014)

‘Thought of the week’, Rabbi Neil Janes (The LJS) – Shabbat Nachamu (7 August 2014)

‘Comfort ye, Comfort ye’, Rabbi Neil Janes (The LJS) – Shabbat Nachamu (9 August 2014)

‘Where can we find comfort’, Rabbi Lea Muehlstein (Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue – Shabbat Nachamu (9 August 2014)

‘Where can we find comfort’, Cantor Cheryl Wunch (North Western Reform Synagogue) – Shabbat Nachamu (9 August 2014)

‘Pause for Thought’, Rabbi Pete Tobias broadcast on Chris Evans Breakfast Show – (13 August 2014)

I also felt it appropriate to include this from our Masorti colleague too:

‘Tishah B’Av – and a Vigil for Life’, Rabbi Jonathan Wittenberg (New North London Synagogue) – (4 August 2014)

‘Consolation’, Rabbi Jonathan Wittenberg (New North London Synagogue) – (8 August 2014)

What some colleagues have been reading:

Some articles – collated by Rabbi Danny Burkeman – rabbdanny.com (10 July 2014)

Some more articles – collated by Rabbi Danny Burkeman – rabbidanny.com (31 July 2014)